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Nevotak語二角龍龍的一種語言,為Nevotak族二角龍龍Nevotak語的前身。

Nevotak語的詞根大都源自古Nevotak語,但古Nevotak語的語法和Nevotak語在語法方面的差異很大,單詞的差異則較小。

在Nevotak語出現後,古Nevotak語的用途多半僅限於宗教方面的用途,且因多數古Nevotak語的文獻很快就有了公認的Nevotak語譯本之故,因此就算是在宗教上,古Nevotak語的運用也隨著時間的經過而降低。

古Nevotak語尚有早期、中期、晚期之身,一般所謂之古Nevotak語皆以中期古Nevotak語為準,故以下除非另外聲明,不然本文的古Nevotak語指的是中期古Nevotak語。

音系编辑

以下附上本處使用之羅馬拼音轉寫及其相對應的IPA音標,實際的發音並不能完全確定。

母音:

  • 短音:
    • ə - /ə/
    • i - /i/
    • u - /u/
  • 長音:
    • ii - /i:/
    • uu - /u:/

不分:

    • a - /a/
    • e - /e/
    • o - /o/

子音:

  • 唇音:
    • m - /m/
    • p - /p/
    • b - /b/
    • w - /w/
  • 齒齦音:
    • n - /n/
    • t - /t/
    • d - /d/
    • s - /s/
    • z - /z/
    • r - /r/
    • l - /l/
  • 顎音/喉音:
    • k - /k/
    • g - /g/
    • h - /h/
    • y - /j/

語法编辑

語序编辑

basic word order: Subject-Object-Verb

Adpositions are postpositions

構句编辑

stative verbs may use "enwan"(from "enyar") as its aux verb; dynamic verbs may use "muswan"(from "musran") as its aux verb; the progressive form of any verb also uses "enwan"(from "enyar") as its aux verb.

Old Nevotak had copulae, among them, "ayar"(present singular: ya- ;present dual: am- ;present plural: amb- ;past.imperfect: is- ;perfect:-e ;subjunctive:-i, no potential and imperative-hortative forms, and all forms of "ayar" only uses agreement marks) is used for nouns; "enyar" is used for adjectives and locations/times.

except the copula "ayar", the verb "golyar"("sit") and "kyar"/"tokyar"("come") also have suppletive plural forms, they are "gamb-"(dual form)/"gab-"(plural form) and "pakyar"(dual and plural form) respectively.

one may simply put a sentence before a noun to form (externally-headed) relative clause, or use -n/-r endings to form internally-headed relative clause, relative clauses can have at most one argument inside it.

word structures:

nouns, verbs and adjectives have word structures like below:

  • Root+Suffix+Inflection

Roots cannot stand alone, they must be used with suffixes and inflections to be an independent word, but roots without suffixes can be used for compounding; suffixes may be used for derivation, changing suffixes may change the meaning and/or the category of a word.

in actual pronunciation, especially between the root and the suffix of a word, an epenthetic /p/, /t/, /s/, /k/, /b/, /d/ or /g/ may be inserted between a nasal and a following consonant when the place of articulation of the nasal is different from the place of articulation of the following consonant, so the actual pronunciation of kiumran("to give") might be /'kium.bran/.

nouns may take various suffixes; verbs may take -y, -n, and -r as their own suffixes; adjectives mostly take -s/-z as their suffixes.

構詞编辑

名詞编辑

Old Nevotak's an marked-nominative language:

case:

  • sg:
    • nom:-ar
    • acc:-a
      • loc:-a-ne
    • gen-obl:-o
      • dat:-o-ye
      • abl:-o-re
      • ben:-o-ta
      • com:-o-ka
      • (or):-o-ga
  • du:
    • nom:-agar
    • acc:-ak
  • pl:
    • nom:-or
    • acc:-o
      • loc:-o-ne
    • gen-obl:-on
      • dat:-on-ye
      • abl:-on-re
      • ben:-on-ta
      • com:-on-ka
      • (or):-on-ga

pronouns themselves don't have numbers, and also employ these nominal affixes.

pronouns:

personal:

  • 1st: urt-
  • 2nd: war-
  • 3rd: ress-

interrogative:

demonstrative:

  • this: hatw-
  • a/the pair of: atw-
  • a/the group of: hatew-
  • that: antw-

形容詞编辑

adjectives agree with nouns they modify in numbers, cases, and definiteness.

  • sg:
    • nom:-or
    • acc:-o
    • nom-acc.def:-on
    • gen-obl:-wo
  • du:
    • nom:-agar
    • acc:-ak
  • pl:
    • nom:-ar
    • acc:-a
    • nom-acc.def:-an
    • gen-obl:-on
  • adverb:-os

動詞编辑

affix order: stem-transitivity-voice-TAM-agreement-conjunction(finite verb) / stem-transitivity-infinitive(infinite verb)

Infinitive:

  • transitive.active:-an
  • intransitive:-ar

Transitivity:

  • intransitive:-n/-y
  • transitive:-r(also used as an causative marker)
  • aux verb:-w

Voice:

  • passive:-ar

TAM:

  • present:-a
  • past.imperfect:-e
  • perfect:-esa
  • subjunctive:-i
  • potential:-u
  • imperative-hortative:-eti

agreement:

  • sg-sg:
    • 1>2:-ma
    • 1>3/1.sg.subj:-ni
    • 2>1:-rum
    • 2>3/2.sg.subj:-mi
    • 3>1:-su
    • 3>2:-so
    • 3>3/3.sg.subj:-si
    • 1.sg.refl:-nar
    • 2.sg.refl:-mar
    • 3.sg.refl:-sar
  • sg-du:
    • 1>2:-muma
    • 1>3:-mun
    • 2>1:-rum
    • 2>3:-mum
    • 3>1:-ru
    • 3>2:-mo
    • 3>3:-nsi
    • 3>1+2:-ro
  • sg-pl:
    • 1>2:-kuma
    • 1>3:-kun
    • 2>1:-ksum
    • 2>3:-kum
    • 3>1:-kur
    • 3>2:-pa
    • 3>3:-ksi
    • 3>1+2:-kor
  • du-sg:
    • 1>2:-nwa(部份方言中為-nəwa或-ma)
    • 1>3/1.du.subj:-nə
    • 2>1:-rumə
    • 2>3/2.du.subj:-mə
    • 1+2>3/1+2.du.subj:-sə
    • 3>1:-tru
    • 3>2:-twa
    • 3>3/3.du.subj:-tə
    • 1.du.refl:-nər
    • 2.du.refl:-mər
    • 1+2.du.refl:-sər
    • 3.du.refl:-tər
  • du-du:
    • 1>2:-mənwa(部份方言中為-manəwa或-mama)
    • 1>3:-mən
    • 2>1:-rumə
    • 2>3:-məm
    • 3>3:-nsə
    • 3>1:-ntru
    • 3>2:-ntwa
    • 3>3:-ntə
    • 3>1+2:-ntro
  • du-pl:
    • 1>2:-kənwa(部份方言中為-kanəwa或-kama)
    • 1>3:-kən
    • 2>1:-ksumə
    • 2>3:-kəm
    • 3>1:-skru
    • 3>2:-spa
    • 3>3:-skə
    • 3>1+2:-skro
  • pl-sg:
    • 1>2:-nawa
    • 1>3/1.pl.subj:-na
    • 2>1:-ruma
    • 2>3/2.pl.subj:-ma
    • 1+2>3/1+2.pl.subj:-sa
    • 3>1:-taru
    • 3>2:-tawa
    • 3>3/3.pl.subj:-ta
    • 1.pl.refl:-nor
    • 2.pl.refl:-mor
    • 1+2.pl.refl:-sor
    • 3.pl.refl:-tor
  • pl-du:
    • 1>2:-manwa(部份方言中為-manawa)
    • 1>3:-man
    • 2>1:-ruma
    • 2>3:-mam
    • 1+2>3:-nsa
    • 3>1:-ntaru
    • 3>2:-ntawa
    • 3>3:-ntə
    • 3>1+2:-ntro
  • pl-pl:
    • 1>2:-kanwa(部份方言中為-kanawa)
    • 1>3:-kan
    • 2>1:-ksuma
    • 2>3:-kam
    • 1+2>3:-ksa
    • 3>1:-katru
    • 3>2:-katwa
    • 3>3:-kat
    • 3>1+2:-katro


conjunction:

  • (relative clause marker for object):-n+nominal case ending(also used as an nominalizer)
  • (relative clause marker for subject):-r+nominal case ending(also used as an nominalizer)
  • and:-ka
  • or:-ga
  • because:-ta/-re
  • when:-ne
  • before:-ran
  • after;since(time):-bak

功能詞编辑

  • Negation:nu(preceding the finite verb or the verb phrase)
  • question:gai

例句编辑

  • ressoye konstada kiumrani - ress-o-ye konstad-a kium-r-a-mi - I give him a book(3.pron-obl.sg-dat book-acc give-transitive-pres-1.sg>3.sg)
  • ressoye konstada kiumran muswani - ress-o-ye konst-a kium-r-an mus-w-a-mi - I give him a book(3.pron-obl.sg-dat book-acc give-transitive-inf.transitive.active do-aux-pres-1.sg>3.sg)
  • sarkemrama - sarkem-r-a-ma - I love you.(love-transitive-pres-1.sg>2.sg)
  • sarkemran enyama - sarkem-r-an en-w-ama - I love you.(love-transitive-inf.transitive.active be.at-aux-pres-1.sg>2.sg)
  • hatwa urto yarar asi / hatw-a urt-o yar-ar a-si - this is my house(this-acc.sg 1.pron-obl.sg house-non.sg be.pres-3.sg.subj)
  • tokyasi / kyasi - tok-y-a-si / k-y-a-si - he comes(come.sg-intransitive-pres-3.sg.subj)
  • tokyatə - tok-y-a-tə - two of them come(come.sg-intransitive-pres-3.du.subj)
  • pakyata - pak-y-a-ta - they come(come.pl-intransitive-pres-3.pl.subj)
  • golyasi - gol-y-a-si - he sits(sit.sg-intransitive-pres-3.sg.subj)
  • gambyatə - gamb-y-a-tə - two of them sit(sit.du-intransitive-pres-3.du.subj)
  • gabyata - gab-y-a-ta - they sit(sit.pl-intransitive-pres-3.pl.subj)
  • marsor stakrar asi - mars-or stakr-ar a-si - he/she is a big person.(big-adj.nom.sg person-nom.sg be.pres-3.sg.subj)
  • waro uroroka waro birorar tokyetə - war-o uror-o-ka war-o biror-ar tok-y-esa-tə - your sibling and your parent has come.(2.pron-obl.sg sibling-obl.sg-com parent-nom.sg come.sg-intransitive-perfect-3.du.subj)
  • hatwoga antar səso enyasi - hatw-o-ga ant-ar səs-o en-y-a-si - this is right or that is right.(this-obl-(or) that-nom right-adj.acc.sg be.at-intransitive-pres-3.sg.subj)
  • tewos-r-e-ta yar-ar niss-o en-y-a-si - the house they built was small.(externally-headed relative clause)(make-transitive-past-3.pl>3.sg house-nom.sg small-adj.acc.sg be.at-intransitive-pres-3.sg.subj)
  • yar-a tewos-r-e-ta-n-ar niss-o en-y-a-si - the house they built was small.(internally-headed relative clause)(house-acc.sg make-transitive-past-3.pl>3.sg-rel.obj-nom.sg small-adj.acc.sg be.at-intransitive-pres-3.sg.subj)
  • tiyorar ersore epso enyasi - tiyor-ar ers-o-re eps-o en-y-a-si - the sun is brighter than the moon.(sun-nom.sg moon-obl.sg-abl bright-adj.acc.sg be.at-intransitive-pres-3.sg.subj)
  • hatwon stakra resso birorar asi - hatw-on stakr-a ress-o biror-ar a-si - this person is his parent.(this-nomacc.sg.def person-acc.sg 3.pron-obl.sg parent-nom.sg be.pres-3.sg.subj)

歷史演變编辑

早期古Nevotak語至中期古Nevotak語(中期古Nevotak語即本文上述的「古Nevotak語」)的變化(下以IPA表示發音):

  • ts > s
  • z > r
  • s > z / _C[+voice]
  • s > z / C_[+voice]
  • a: > o
  • wa > o / C_(在某些單詞和詞綴中)
  • ə > 0 / _CV(在某些單詞和詞綴中)
  • CC > C:(兩個一樣的子音變成一個長子音)
  • kt > sk
  • kw > p
  • gw > b
  • nw > m
  • ai > e
  • au > o
  • əi > i:
  • əu > u:
  • ji > je
  • wu > wo

其中「z > r」發生於「s > z」之前;「kw > p」、「gw > b」和「nw > m」發生於「ə > 0」之前;「kt > sk」發生於「kw > p」、「gw > b」和「nw > m」之前;「a: > o」發生在「a > a:」之前。然而在「s > z」出現之後才形成的「濁塞音+s」或「s+濁塞音」的組合多半導致s前後之濁塞音清化,因此多數的形容詞的「濁塞音+s」的組合中的s都有濁化的現象;而多數合成詞中的「濁塞音+s」或「s+濁塞音」中都有濁塞音清化的現象,因為許多的合成詞是在中期古Nevotak語階段才出現的,少部份出現s濁化的合成詞是較早出現的合成詞。

中期古Nevotak語至晚期古Nevotak語的變化:

  • p > f
  • sk > ʃ
  • t > ts / _s(稍後ts+s的組合變作tts)
  • d > z / _z
  • 結尾母音弱化:
  • e,i > ɪ
  • o,u > ʊ
  • a,ə > ə(稍後ɪ、ʊ、ə合併為ɨ)
  • 齒齦音的顎化:
    • t > tʃ / _i
    • d > dʒ / _i
    • s > ʃ / _i
    • n > ɲ / _i(僅見於部份方言)
    • l > ʎ / _i(僅見於部份方言)
    • tj > tʃ
    • dj > dʒ
    • sj > ʃ
    • nj > ɲ(僅見於部份方言)
    • lj > ʎ(僅見於部份方言)
  • 詞首複輔音簡化:
    • sp,st,stʃ,sl,sr,zb,zd,zdʒ,sm,sn > f,t,tʃ,l,r,b,d,dʒ,m,n
    • pl,kl,bl,gl > f,k,b,g
    • pr,kr,br,gr > f,k,b,g

「齒齦音的顎化」和「sk > ʃ」發生在「p > f」之後;「詞首複輔音簡化」發生在「p > f」和「sk > ʃ」之後。

晚期古Nevotak語至早期通用Nevotak語的變化:

  • h > 0
  • ə > i
  • g > h
  • f > h / _C,_#
  • s > z !_C[-sonorant -voice]
  • ʃ > ʒ !_C[-sonorant -voice](稍後dʒ和ʒ合併)
  • d > l
  • ln,ld > l:
  • 弱化母音消失,弱化母音前的子音常一併消失。
  • 語序:SOV > V2,SOV > V2,SVO

「g > h」發生在「h > 0」之後;另某些方言中沒有發生「h > 0」的音變。

早期通用Nevotak語至通用Nevotak語(通用Nevotak語即一般所稱的「Nevotak語」)的變化:

  • 語序變為純粹的SVO
  • w,j > 0 / V_V
  • tts > ts(羅馬拼音轉寫作tz)
  • lh,lb,lk,lf,lm > rh,rb,rk,rf,rm
  • l,l: > d
  • C: > C
  • 母音變化:
    • aa > a:
    • oe > oi(部份方言中變為o:)
    • eo > eu(部份方言中變為e:)
    • ae > ai
    • ea > ia
    • iu > i(未反映於書寫)(部份方言中變為y)
    • e: > i:
    • o: > u:(稍後在部份方言中這/u:/又變成了/o:/)

「w,j > 0」發生在「母音變化」之前;「l,l: > d」發生在「lg,lb,lk,lf > rg,rb,rk,rf」之前;「母音變化」中,「e: > i:」和「o: > u: > o:」發生於其他變化之後。

是故在中期古Nevotak語中,/z/的區辨性不強,而早期古Nevotak語中的/z/和後來通用Nevotak語中的/z/,彼此間沒有關聯,通用Nevotak語中的/z/是後起的,通常源自早期古Nevotak語的/s/。

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