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Qitatyattas語二角龍龍的一種語言,為Qitas族二角龍龍所用。

方言编辑

目前已知Qitatyattas語至少有標準話/中央方言、石頭城方言和八城殖民地方言等數個方言。

通格和不及物格單數結尾在石頭城方言中簡化合併為-a或消失,作格─斜格變為-wa,且/a/在非重音位置常發作[ə]。如果一個單詞,其在中央方言中的形式的詞幹是以/w/或/j/結尾的話,那它在石頭城方言中的相對應形式的單數通格和單數不及物格形就與詞幹同形,如中央方言中的q'ikîruw-as,在石頭城方言中的詞幹形式、單數通格形和單數不及物格形即為q'ikîru。

八城殖民地方言承襲了很多石頭城方言的特色,並在此基礎上發展,同時八城殖民地方言中,[ə]在許多單詞中進一步地消失(詞幹或最後一個詞形變化以兩個子音結尾的狀況除外),且在八城殖民地方言中,作格的角色由通格取代,原本的作格只剩下斜格的功能(此外,與格似乎有逐漸變為賓格的趨勢),而其餘的格也出現簡化的現象,因此八城殖民地方言有朝向主─賓格語言變化的趨勢。

音系编辑

子音编辑

  • 擠喉音(ejective consonants)只出現在詞首,當不是在字首位置時,它變為長子音:
    • /p'/>[pp]
    • /t'/>[tt]
    • /ts'/>[tts]
    • /c'/>[cc]
    • /k'/>[kk]
    • /q'/>[qq]
  • 塞音、塞擦音和擦音在兩母音間或在鼻音和母音間,且前方的音節為非重音時,其實際發音常會濁化:
    • /p/>[b]
    • /t/>[d]
    • /ts/>[dz]
    • /s/>[z]
    • /c/>[ɟ]
    • /k/>[g]
    • /q/>[ʁ]
    • /ph/>[β~v]
    • /th/>[ð]
    • /tsh/>[zz]
    • /ch/>[ʝ]
    • /kh/>[ɣ]
    • /qh/>[ʕ]

母音编辑

母音音位只有/a/、/i/和/u/三個,但皆分長母音和短母音兩種形式。

在小舌音後方,/i/和/u/的實際發音變為[e~ɛ]和[o~ɔ];/i:/和/u:/的實際發音變為[e:~ɛi]和[o:~ɔu]

語法编辑

Word order: the word order is largely free, but the verb always comes last, and the basic word order is Subject-Object-Verb(SOV)

Patientive nouns in transitive verbs may incorporate into verbs

-a- is frequently used as an epenthesis vowel between morphemes; -u- is used as an epenthesis vowel within roots if the reduced roots form non-permissible clusters.

語序编辑

  • 基本語序:主詞─受詞─受詞(SOV)
  • 介詞為後置詞
  • 名詞領屬和關係子句等置於被修飾詞前方;數詞和形容詞等可置於被修飾詞前方或後方

形容詞编辑

Adjectives don't agree with nouns when preceding nouns(although sometimes prenomial adjectives may agree with nouns in numbers), and adjectives agree with nouns in number and case when follong nouns

example:

qit-as k'alin-as = k'alin-a qit-as = a strong person

qit-u k'alin-u = k'alin-a qit-u = k'alin-u qit-u = two strong people

qit-i k'alin-i = k'alin-a qit-i = k'alin-i qit-i = strong people

qit-ir-a-n k'alin-i-n = k'alin-a qit-ir-a-n = k'alin-i qit-ir-a-n = of those strong people

名詞编辑

Order:Stem-Demostrative-Possessive-Cases/Numbers

  • copula suffix:-t/-ts/-s/-nt/-nts/-ns

格與數的變化编辑

  • predicative(used when copula suffixes are used): -a(singular)/-u(dual)/-i(plural)/-a(demostrative/possessive)
  • Intransitive: -~-as<-~-ats(singular)/-u(dual)/-i(plural)/-as(demostrative/possessive) (Intransitive is only different from Absolutive in singular forms of some words, most of them are animate nouns)
  • Absolutive-Accusative: -as<-ats(singular)/-u(dual)/-i(plural)/-as(demostrative/possessive)
  • Ergative-(Instrumental): -awa(regular nouns)~-â(irregular nouns)(singular)/-uqa(regular nouns)~-ûqa(irregular nouns)(dual)/-ina(regular nouns)~-îna(irregular nouns)(plural)/-awa(demostrative/possessive)
  • Oblique: -a(regular nouns)~-â(irregular nouns)(singular)/-uqa(regular nouns)~-ûqa(irregular nouns)(dual)/-ina(regular nouns)~-îna(irregular nouns)(plural)/-a(demostrative/possessive)
    • Genitive/Adverbial(of): Oblique+-n
    • Dative-Allative(to, onto): Oblique+-m
    • Pegaive-Causal-Ablative(from, because of, also used with verbs to indicate reason): Oblique+-t/-ta
    • Instrumental(with, using):Oblique+-ha
    • Comitative(with, and):Oblique+man
    • Disjunctive(or):Oblique+-mik
    • Benefactive(to, for):Oblique+tsi
    • malefactive(sacrificing, harming):Oblique+sim
    • Locative(at, when): Oblique+-tta
      • Adessive(by):Locative+-mu
      • Inessive(in, during):Locative+-n
      • Elative(out of):Locative+-p
      • Superessive(on):Locative+-q
      • Subessive(under, below):Locative+-ni

In some dialects, the intransitive and the Absolutive-Accusative ending were reduced to -a or dropped in singular forms of many words.

some frequently used nouns may apply vowel alternations in their roots, and shift their stresses to the oblique suffix added to them, as they become oblique, and demostrative/possessive forms do not apply this rule:

  • kâr-as("foot, leg", Absolutive singular) > kr-â("foot, leg" Ergative-oblique singular); kâr-u("feet, legs", Absolutive dual) > kr-ûqa("two feet, two legs" Ergative-oblique dual) ; kâr-i("feet, legs", Absolutive plural) > kr-îna("feet, legs" Ergative-oblique plural)
    • but kâr-aq-as("my foot, my leg", Absolutive singular) > kâr-aq-awa("my foot, my leg", Ergative-oblique singular) ; kâr-uq-as("my foot, my leg", Absolutive dual) > kâr-uq-awa("my feet, my legs", Ergative-oblique dual) (plural forms do not normally occur, as having more than two legs for an individual of their kind is semantically(not grammatically) unreasonable, as every individual of their kind has two hands, two legs, one tail, and one head with two eyes, two horns and one mouth.)
  • sâm-as("eye", Absolutive singular) > sm-â("eye" Ergative-oblique singular) ; sâm-u("two eyes", Absolutive dual) > sm-ûqa("two eyes" Ergative-oblique dual) ; sâm-i("eyes", Absolutive plural) > sm-îna("eyes" Ergative-oblique plural)
    • but sâm-aq-as("my eye", Absolutive singular) > sâm-aq-awa("my eye", Ergative-oblique singular) ; sâm-uq-as("my eyes", Absolutive dual) > sâm-uq-awa("my eyes", Ergative-oblique dual)
  • rîk-as("hand", Absolutive singular) > rik-â("hand", Ergative-oblique singular) ; rîk-u("two hands", Absolutive dual) > rik-ûqa("two hands", Ergative-oblique dual) ; rîk-i("hands", Absolutive plural) > rik-îna("hands", Ergative-oblique dual)
    • but rîk-aq-as("my hand", Absolutive singular) > rîk-aq-awa("my hand", Ergative-oblique singular) ; rîk-uq-as("my hands", Absolutive dual) > rîk-uq-awa("my hands", Ergative-oblique dual)
  • tân-as("tooth", Absolutive singular) > tun-â("tooth", Ergative-oblique singular) ; tân-u("two teeth", Absolutive dual) > tun-ûqa("two teeth", Ergative-oblique dual) ; tân-i("teeth", Absolutive plural) > tun-îna("teeth", Ergative-oblique plural)
    • but tân-aq-as("my tooth", Absolutive singular) > tân-aq-awa("my tooth", Ergative-oblique singular) ; tân-uq-as("two of my teeth", Absolutive dual) > tân-uq-awa("two of my teeth", Ergative-oblique dual) ; tân-iq-as("my teeth", Absolutive plural) > tân-iq-awa("my teeth", Ergative-oblique plural)
  • mât-as("mouth", Absolutive singular) > mut-â("mouth", Ergative-oblique singular) ; mât-u("two mouths", Absolutive dual) > mut-ûqa("two mouths", Ergative-oblique dual) ; mât-i("mouths", Absolutive plural) > mut-îna("mouths", Ergative-oblique plural)

指示後綴编辑

  • this:-aty
  • that:-ay/-ar
  • these two:-uty
  • those two:-uy/-ur
  • these:-ity
  • those:-iy/-ir

領屬後綴编辑

order:被領屬者的數量-(可分/不可分)領屬後綴

被領屬者的數量编辑
  • singular/demostrative:-a
  • dual:-u
  • plural:-i
不可分領屬後綴编辑

1st:

  • singular:-q
  • dual:-muq/-mut
  • plural:-niq/-nty

2nd:

  • singular:-p
  • dual:-mp
  • plural:-nip

3rd:

  • singular:-s
  • dual:-m
  • plural:-n
可分領屬後綴编辑

1st:

  • singular:-qr
  • dual:-ruq/-rut
  • plural:-riq/-rit

2nd:

  • singular:-pr
  • dual:-rup
  • plural:-rip

3rd:

  • singular:-y/-r
  • dual:-mpr
  • plural:-ntr

動詞编辑

Order:stem-causative-antipassive-converb/stem-causative-antipassive-moods-aspects-tenses-agreements-negation-relative/question

Causative:-is

Antipassive:-r/-ar(when used, the objective might be expressed using dative when necessary)

Converb:-u

語氣编辑

  • Indicative:-a
  • Subjunctive:-i
  • Conditional(if......then......):-in
  • Potential(able, can):-aku(not used with tense/aspect)
  • Optative(wish, hope, want):-ima(not used with tense/aspect)
  • Imperative/Hortative:-aki(not used with tense/aspect)

語體编辑

  • Imperfective:-t
  • Perfective:-s
  • Stative:-tum
  • continuous:-ty

時態编辑

  • Non-past:-a
  • Past:-u/-unu(yesterday)/-uni(further past)

人稱一致编辑

1st.P:

  • singular:-q
  • dual:-muq/-t
  • plural:-niq/-nit

2nd.P:

  • singular:-p
  • dual:-mup
  • plural:-nip

3rd.P:

  • singular:-
  • dual:-m
  • plural:-n

1st.P-2nd.A:

  • P.SG+A.SG:-qap
  • P.SG+A.DU:-qup
  • P.SG+A.PL:-qip
  • P.DU+A.SG:-muqap/-tap
  • P.DU+A.DU:-muqup/-tup
  • P.DU+A.PL:-muqip/-tip
  • P.PL+A.SG:-niqap/-ntap
  • P.PL+A.DU:-niqup/-ntup
  • P.PL+A.PL:-niqip/-ntip

2nd.P-1st.A:

  • P.SG+A.SG:-paq
  • P.SG+A.DU:-puq
  • P.SG+A.PL:-piq
  • P.DU+A.SG:-mpaq
  • P.DU+A.DU:-mpuq
  • P.DU+A.PL:-mpiq
  • P.PL+A.SG:-nipaq
  • P.PL+A.DU:-nipuq
  • P.PL+A.PL:-nipiq

1st.P-3rd.A:

  • P.SG+A.SG:-q
  • P.SG+A.DU:-qu
  • P.SG+A.PL:-qi
  • P.DU+A.SG:-muq/-t
  • P.DU+A.DU:-muqu/-tu
  • P.DU+A.PL:-muqi/-ty
  • P.PL+A.SG:-niq/-nit
  • P.PL+A.DU:-niqu/-ntu
  • P.PL+A.PL:-niqi/-nti

3rd.P-1st.A/1st.A:

  • P.SG+A.SG:-qqa
  • P.SG+A.DU:-qqu/-tta
  • P.SG+A.PL:-qqi/-tti~-ttya
  • P.DU+A.SG:-suq
  • P.DU+A.DU:-suqu/-sut
  • P.DU+A.PL:-suqi/-suty~-suti
  • P.PL+A.SG:-siq
  • P.PL+A.DU:-siqu/-sit
  • P.PL+A.PL:-siqi/-sity~-siti

2nd.P-3rd.A:

  • P.SG+A.SG:-p
  • P.SG+A.DU:-pu
  • P.SG+A.PL:-pi
  • P.DU+A.SG:-mup
  • P.DU+A.DU:-mpu
  • P.DU+A.PL:-mpi
  • P.PL+A.SG:-nip
  • P.PL+A.DU:-nipu
  • P.PL+A.PL:-nipi

3rd.P-2nd.A/2nd.A:

  • P.SG+A.SG:-ppa
  • P.SG+A.DU:-ppu
  • P.SG+A.PL:-ppi
  • P.DU+A.SG:-sup
  • P.DU+A.DU:-supu
  • P.DU+A.PL:-supi
  • P.PL+A.SG:-sip
  • P.PL+A.DU:-sipu
  • P.PL+A.PL:-sipi

3rd.P-3rd.A:

  • P.SG+A.SG:-
  • P.SG+A.DU:-su
  • P.SG+A.PL:-si
  • P.DU+A.SG:-wa
  • P.DU+A.DU:-mu
  • P.DU+A.PL:-wi
  • P.PL+A.SG:-ya
  • P.PL+A.DU:-yu
  • P.PL+A.PL:-ny/-ni

3rd.A:

  • singular:-sa
  • dual:-su
  • plural:-si

reflexive:

1st:

  • singular:-qik
  • dual:-muqik/-tik
  • plural:-niqik/-ntik

2nd:

  • singular:-pik
  • dual:-mpik
  • plural:-nipik

3rd:

  • singular:-k
  • dual:-mik
  • plural:-nik

reciprocal:-wa/-awa(added immedietly after agreements)

關係子句编辑

  • antecedent is absolutive:-l/-al+adjectival endings
  • antecedent is ergative:-kl/-kal/-akl+adjectival endings
  • antecedent is daive:-pl/-pal/-apl+adjectival endings
  • content subdordinate clause:-n/-an+adjectival endings/nominal endings
  • nominal subdordinate clause:-n/-an+nominal endings

否定编辑

Negation:-mi/-ami

Imperative negation:-ri/-ari(added between imperative and agreement)

其他编辑

Question:-nga/-anga

conditional(if):-(a)ka

reason(because):-(a)ta

temporal(when, and):-(a)tta

conjunctive(and):-(a)hi

disjunctive(or):-(a)mmik

(before):-(a)luk

(after;then):-(a)ni

詞根编辑

Syllable Structure of Words:(C)(C)V(C)-

Syllable structure of roots:(C)V(G)(C)-

G=Glides(/w//j/) C=any consonants

if a root is ended with glides, then the ending is doubled when having any suffix(thus kîy-as means bird, rûw-a means small, and so on)

Roots:

Tongue;Speak;Language:ty-t-

Person:q-yt-

Gum:t-m-

Come;Give:-k-(when used as verb, there are manytimes no root vowel)

Use:-h-

Power;Ability;Strong:k'-l-

Hope;Wish:h-ym-

Want:ph-m-

Boat;Ship:y-k-

front;face;after:n-y-

back;before:l-k-

Head;Up;First:k-s-

Fish;Swim:k-ul-

House;Home:-m-

bird;fly:k-y-

trade:qh-n-

copper; mold:ph-ng-

blood; red; bleed:q'-ts-

big;large:p-r-

small;little:r-u-

choose;choice;alternative;other:m-yk-

sun;light;shine:s-r-

die;dead;corpse;kill:k'-n-

fight;battle;weapon;warrior:p'-ng-

sleep:h-yl-

to chop (with axe);axe:p-yt-

to cut;to seperate;knife:q-ts-

to lie (down);to fell (things like trees):p-wk-

派生詞綴编辑

動詞编辑

Causative form(make ......):<r>(insert between the initial consonant and the vowel of roots, and <sr>,<rr>,<lr>,<nr> > <ir> ; <tyr>,<tyhr>,<ty'r> > <tir>,<thir>,<t'ir>)/<l>(used when the ending consonant of the root contains /r/), root has vowel

  • example: s-m-(root with meaning of "eye") > sram > irâm-("to teach") ; q-l-(root with meaning of "tree") > qral-("to build") > -uk-(root with meaning of "(thing) be comfortable") > rauk- > rûk-("to comfort") ; -k-(root with meaning of "come, give") > rak-("to obtain, to get, to give"); k-yp-(root with meaning of "hip") > krayp- > krîp-("to set, to put"); p-r(root with meaning of "big") > plar-("to grow, to expand, to stretch"); s-t-(root with meaning of "other") > srat- > irat-("to change, to alter") ; q'-ts-(root with meaning of "blood, red") > q'rats-("to bleed, to harm, to hurt"); k'-n-(root with meaning of "dead") > k'ran-("to kill, to murder, to make die") ; p-wk-(root with meaning of "to lie, lay") > prauk- > prûk-("to fell (things like trees, etc), to kill (enemies or something in battle), to overthrow)")

Instrumental form(use ......):duplication of the last consonant of roots, if root has two ending consonts, its form is unchanged, root has vowel

  • example: s-m-(root with meaning of "eye") > samm-("to see, to know") ; ty-t-(root with meaning of "tongue") > tyatt-("to speak") ; t-n-(root with meaning of "tooth") > tann- ("to bite"); k-r(root with meaning of "foot, leg") > karr- ("to walk, to go, to move, to send"); m-t-(root with meaning of "mouth") > matt- ("to eat") ; r-yk-(root with meaning of "hand") > rayk- > rîk-("to work"); k-yp-(root with meaning of "hip") > kayp- > kîp-("to sit"); t-p-(root with meaning of "rope") > tapp-("to tie, to bind, to connect"); y-k-(root with meaning of "ship") > yakk-("to sail"); q-ts(root with meaning of "knife") > qatts-("to cut;to seperate") ; p-yt-(root with meaning of "axe") > paytt- > pitt("to chop(with axe)")

Associative form(behave like ......):-am, root has no vowel

  • example: q-l-(root with meaning of "tree") > qlam- ("(non-animate things) to stand") ; r-yk-(root with meaning of "hand") > rikâm-("to hug"); t-m-(root with meaning of "gum") > tmam > tumâm-("to stick, to glue"); s-t-(root with meaning of "other") > stam-("to imitate, to copy, to play a role as") ; k-ul-(root with meaning of "fish") > kulâm-("to swim") ; k-y-(root with meaning of "bird") > kiyâm-("to fly") ; ph-ng-(root with meaning of "copper, gold") > phungâm-("to glitter")

when there are other derivations with their own vowels, the root vowel is not affected

Directive form(do related actions on......):-t, root has vowel, -at if root has two ending consonants

  • example: k-r(root with meaning of "foot, leg") > kart- ("to tread) ; t-n-(root with meaning of "tooth") > tant-("to hook, to hang") ; q-l-(root with meaning of "tree") > qâlat-("to be located at") ; r-yk-(root with meaning of "hand") > râykat- > rîkat-("to handle") ; n-y(root with meaning of "front") > nayt- > nît-("to lead, to reign, to conduct, to teach"); l-k(root with meaning of "back") > lakt-("to follow") ; ph-ng-(root with meaning of "copper, gold") > phângat-("to mold")

Reverse form(do the reverse of the action):-ap, root has no vowel

  • example: rak-("to obtain, to get") > rkap- > rukâp-("to lose (something)"); m-t- > mtap- > mutâp-("to vomit"); -k-("to come") > kap-("to leave") ; k-r- > krap-("to stop")

when there are other derivations with their own vowels, the root vowel is not affected

名詞编辑

nominalized verbs mostly indicates the patient of the verb(root has vowel).

  • example:
    • tyatt-as = language; speech
    • matt-as = food
    • samm-as = knowledge
    • qlam-as = pole
    • qâlat-as = location; place
    • ak-as = gift
    • nayt-as > nît-as = follower; folk; people
    • rayk-as > rîk-as = worker
    • qral-as = building
    • ah-as = tool
    • qhan-as = goods
    • k'an-as = deceased one

agentive nouns derivated from verbs are marked with -r/-ar, root has vowel

  • example:
    • tyatt-r-as = speaker
    • ak-r-as = comer
    • nayt-r-as > nît-r-as = leader;governer
    • iram-r-as > irampr-as = teacher
    • ah-ar-as = user
    • stam-r-as > stampr-as = actor;performer
    • yakk-ar-as = sailor
    • qhan-ar-as = businessman;tradesman;shopkeeper
    • p'ang-r-as > p'angkr-as = warrior;sodier

locative nouns derivated from nouns or verbs are marked with -m/-am, root has vowel

  • example:
    • tyatt-am-as = forum
    • kayp-am-as > kîpam-as = seat
    • iram-m-as = school
    • ah-am-as = usage
    • qhan-am-as = market
    • k'rîm-am-as = "undying land"
    • p'ang-am-as = battlefield

abstract nouns derivated from verbs, nouns or adjectives are marked with -ant(-hood,-shio,-ness,-tion, -th, a suffix meaning the state/quality/(measure)/etc. represented by the words), -ang(the act of ......), root has no vowel

  • example:
    • ryk-ant-as > rikânt-as = skill
    • smm-ant-as > smant-as = sight; ability of seeing; vision
    • mtt-ang-as > muttang-as = eating
    • stm-ang-as > stumâng-as = imitation
    • krr-ang-as > krang-as = moving
    • nyt-ang-as > nitâng-as = reign;ruling;dynasty
    • k'l-ant-as = k'lant-as = strength
    • h-ang-as = using
    • qhn-ang-as > qhunâng-as = trade
    • nytr-ant-as > nitrânt-as = leadership;kingship;state of being a king
    • m-ant-as = kinship
    • p'ng-ang-as > p'ungâng-as = battle

when there are other derivations with their own vowels, the root vowel is not affected:

  • example:
    • samm-il-ant-as = intelligence
    • rayk-il-ant-as > rîk-il-ant-as = skillfulness

associative nouns are derivated from nouns or verbs are marked with -ak(meaning something related to ......), such thing are frequetly but not always tools related to the verbs they are derivated, root has no vowel

  • example:
    • ql-ak-as = lumber
    • yk-ak-as > ikâk-as = crew of a ship
    • m-ak-as = family member;relatives;kin
    • k'n-ak-as > k'unâk-as = corpse
    • p'ng-ak-as > p'ungâk-as = weaon

when there are other derivations with their own vowels, the root vowel is not affected:

  • example:
    • phângat-ak-as = mold

collective nouns are marked with -any/-an/-ay, root has vowel

  • example:
    • mak-any-as = family;tribe;kin(mak-as and am-as has essentially the same meaning, but mak-any-as empahsizes the meaning of a set of kindreds)
    • qit-any-as = folk;people
    • matt-any-as = food(as a collective noun)
    • kûl-any-as = fish(as a collective noun);a school of fish
    • kay-an-as > kîy-an-as = a flock of birds
    • p'angkr-an-as = army
    • qal-any-as = forest;woods

形容詞编辑

Adjective derivations I(-y/-ly/-ing):-il/-in

  • examples:
    • tam-il-a = sticky
    • qal-in-a = woody
    • rayk-il-a > rîk-il-a = handy;skillful;crafty
    • samm-il-a = smart;with many knowledge
    • k'al-in-as = strong
    • q'ats-il-as = bloody
    • q'utsayâr-il-a = red
    • karr-il-a = moving
    • k'ran-il-a = fatal

Adjective derivations II(-less):-îm < -aym, root has no vowel

example:

  • h-îm-a = useless
  • m-îm-a = homeless
  • k'l-îm-a = unable;strengthless
  • sm-îm-a = eyeless;knowledgeless
  • ryk-îm-a > rikîm-a = handless;lazy
  • k'r-aym-a > k'rîm-a = immortal;undying

when there are other derivations with their own vowels, the root vowel is not affected

合成詞编辑

manytimes, some roots of compounds lose its vowel, and only the "head" of the compound retains its vowel

  • examples:
    • samm-("to see")+rak-("to get") > sumprâk- = to find
    • tam-("gum")+qal-("tree") > tamql-as = treegum
    • tam-("gum")+qal-("tree") > tumqâl-as = gumtree
    • qayt~qit("qitatyattas people")+tyatt-("speech, language") > qitatyâttas = The Qitatyattas language
    • am-("House, Home")+par-("big) > ampr-as = Palace(lit:"big house")
    • yak-("ship")+naytr-("leader") > ikanâytr-as > ikanîtr-as = Captain(of a ship)
    • kas-("head")+kaul("fish") > kusakâul-as > kusakûl-as = oceansunfish
    • qhan-("trade")+phang-("copper") > qhumphâng-as = money
    • qhan-("trade")+tyatt-("speech") > qhuntyâtt-as = treaty; agreement; protocol
    • q'ats-("blood")+yar-("colour") > q'utsayâr-as = red
    • q'ayk-("sound of a kind of bird")+kay-("bird")+rau-("small") > q'ikayruw-as > q'ikîruw-as(dialectical "q'ikîru") = kikirubird
    • p'ang-("fight")+naytr-("leader") >p'unganîtr-as = general(of an army)
    • phang-("copper")+sar-("sun") > phangasur-as = gold

單詞编辑

代詞编辑

independent Pronouns:

1st:

  • singular:qa(nominative)/ngaq(accusative)/ngaqa(oblque)
  • exclusive dual:qu(nominative)/uq(accusative)/quqa(oblique)
  • inclusive dual:at(nominative)/ataq(accusative)/atta(oblique)
  • exclusive plural:qi(nominative)/iq(accusative)/qina(oblique)
  • inclusive plural:ani(nominative)/atiq(accusative)/atina(oblique)

2nd:

  • singular:pa(nominative)/nyap(accusative)/nyapa(oblque)
  • dual:pu(nominative)/puq(accusative)/puqa(oblque)
  • plural:pi(nominative)/piq(accusative)/pina(oblque)

3rd: singular:asa(absolutive)/sa(ergative-oblque) dual:su(absolutive)/suqa(ergative-oblque) plural:si(absolutive)/sina(ergative-oblque)

reflexive:ki

demostrative-this:

  • singular:atya(absolutive)/tya(ergative-oblque)
  • dual:tyu(absolutive)/tyuqa(ergative-oblque)
  • plural:ti(absolutive)/tina(ergative-oblque)

demostrative-that:

  • singular:ara(absolutive)/ra(ergative-oblque)
  • dual:ru(absolutive)/ruqa(ergative-oblque)
  • plural:ri(absolutive)/rina(ergative-oblque)

here:tatya

there:tara

who: ar-

what: araq- (where/when = araq-a-tta(哪裡?/什麼時候?) ; why = araq-a-t(為何/為什麼?) ; how = araq-a-n(如何?)/araq-a-ha(以何方法?)/)

which: ayar-

數詞编辑

數詞使用形容詞詞綴,詞形變化規則同於形容詞:

  1. 一;單一的;獨一的:sî-q-/si-
  2. 二;雙重的;成雙成對的:pâq-/p-/m-
  3. 三:nâ-q-/n-
  4. 四:ngâ-q-/ng-/u-(手掌:ang-as)
  5. 五:usî-q-
  6. 六:upâ-q-
  7. 七:unâ-q-
  8. 八:tyâ-q-
  • 十六:nyâ-q-
  • 六十四:tityâ-q-/ityâ-q-
  • 一百二十八:mityâ-q-
  • 五百一十二:umityâ-q-/untyâ-q-
  • 四零九六:tyuntyâ-q-

序數詞:將數詞結尾之-q改為-s,但「第一」有特殊的單詞:kas-

不規則名詞和不規則動詞列表编辑

不規則名詞编辑

  • 人:qît-(通格/不及物格/限定形(帶屬格或指示詞的形式)詞幹)/qit-(作格/斜格詞幹)
  • 父母;家長:mâm-(通格/不及物格/限定形(帶屬格或指示詞的形式)詞幹)/mum-(作格/斜格詞幹)
  • 子女:hâm-(通格/不及物格/限定形(帶屬格或指示詞的形式)詞幹)/hum-(作格/斜格詞幹)
  • 手:rîk-(通格/不及物格/限定形(帶屬格或指示詞的形式)詞幹)/rik-(作格/斜格詞幹)
  • 腳:kâr-(通格/不及物格/限定形(帶屬格或指示詞的形式)詞幹)/kr-(作格/斜格詞幹)
  • 眼:sâm-(通格/不及物格/限定形(帶屬格或指示詞的形式)詞幹)/sm-~sum-(作格/斜格詞幹)
  • 牙齒:tân-(通格/不及物格/限定形(帶屬格或指示詞的形式)詞幹)/tun-(作格/斜格詞幹)
  • 嘴巴:mât-(通格/不及物格/限定形(帶屬格或指示詞的形式)詞幹)/mut-(作格/斜格詞幹)

不規則動詞编辑

  • 來:k-(用於多數的形式)/ak-(用於構造名詞或形容詞等時)

例句编辑

  • k-a-t-a-q = I come = come-INDIC-IMPERF-PRES-1.SG.P
  • k-a-t-a-muq = We two come = come-INDIC-IMPERF-PRES-1.DU.P
  • k-a-t-a-niq = We come = come-INDIC-IMPERF-PRES-1.PL.P
  • karr-a-t-a-qqa = I walk = walk-INDIC-IMPERF-PRES-1.SG.A
  • karr-a-t-a-qqu = We two walk = walk-INDIC-IMPERF-PRES-1.DU.A
  • karr-a-t-a-qqi = We walk = walk-INDIC-IMPERF-PRES-1.PL.A
  • k-aki-p = come!(to one person)
  • k-aki-mup! = come!(to two persons)
  • k-aki-nip! = come!(to many people)
  • matt-aki-sit! = Let us two(thee and me) eat.
  • matt-aki-sity! = Let us eat.
  • matt-aki-ya! = Let him eat.
  • matt-aki-ppa! = eat that!
  • matt-aki-ri-ppa! = don't eat that!
  • samm-a-t-a-paq = I see you = see-INDIC-IMPERF-PRES-1.SG.A.2.SG.P
  • samm-a-t-a-qap = You see me = see-INDIC-IMPERF-PRES-2.SG.A.1.SG.P
  • samm-a-t-a-qqa = I know it/I see it = see-INDIC-IMPERF-PRES-1.SG.A
  • kasakûl-i samm-a-s-unu-siq = I saw sunfish yesterday = sunfish-ABS.PL saw-INDIC-PERF-PAST.yesterday-1.SG.A
  • kûl-i matt-a-s-unu-ni-mi-nga? (= kulamatt-a-s-unu-ni-mi-nga) = Didn't they eat fish yesterday? = fish-ABS.PL eat-INDIC-PERF-PAST.yesterday-3.PL.A.3.PL.P-NEG-Q
  • qit-ir-awa kûl-i matt-a-s-unu-ni-mi-t, rîk-aku-si-mi = because those people didn't eat fish yesterday, they can't work. = person-DEM.that.ERG.PL-ERG.DEM fish-ABS.PL eat-INDIC-PERF-PAST.yesterday-3.PL.A.3.PL.P-NEG-because, work-POTENTIAL-3.PL.A-NEG
  • kûl-i matt-a-s-unu-ya-mi-kla qit-as - the person who didn't eat fish yesterday. = fish-ABS.PL eat-INDIC-PERF-PAST.yesterday-3.SG.A.3.PL.P-NEG-REL.ERG person-ABS.SG
  • qit-â matt-a-s-unu-ya-mi-la kûl-i - the fish which the person didn't eat yesterday. = person-ERG.SG eat-INDIC-PERF-PAST.yesterday-3.SG.A.3.PL.P-NEG-REL.ABS fish-ABS.PL
  • am-aq-as tara-tta qral-ima-qqa = I want to build my house there = house-my-ABS.DEM there-LOC build-OPTATIVE-1.SG.A
  • matt-a-t-a-siq = I eat them = eat-INDIC-IMPERF-PRES-1.SG.A.3.PL.P
  • am-a-qr-a-m (a)k-a-s-unu - he came to my house yesterday = house-SG.POSSESSED-my.ALIENABLE-OBL.DEM-DAT come-INDIC-PERF-PAST.yesterday-3.SG.P
  • qit-ar-as am-a-qr-a-m k-a-s-unu - that person came to my house yesterday. = person-DEM.that-ABS.DEM house-SG.POSSESSED-my.ALIENABLE-OBL.DEM-DAT come-INDIC-IPERF-PAST.yesterday-3.SG.P
  • qit kûl-a-t-a-sa/qit-as kûl-a-t-a-sa - A person swims
  • qit-ay-as kûl-a-t-a-sa - That person swims
  • atya kûl-a-ns-a-t-a - This is a fish.
  • ara am-a-qr-a-ns-a-t-a - That is my house.
  • ri qal-i-ns-a-t-a-n - those things are trees
  • ti qhan-i-r-ans-a-t-a-n - these things are his things.
  • matt-a-s-u-ya-ni, am-a-r-a-m karr-a-s-u. - after he had eaten something, he went home. = eat-INDIC-PERF-PAST-3.PL.P.3.SG.A-after, house-SG.POSSESSED-his.ALIENABLE-OBL.DEM-DAT walk-INDIC-PERF-PAST-3.SG.P
  • yak-i-qr-as = my ships
  • am-a-r-a-m kr-ûqa-ha karr-a-t-a-qqa - 我走去他家(此處kr-ûqa-ha+karr-是一個固定搭配的用語,用來強調是用「走」的,不加kr-ûqa-ha時,karr-通常單純解為「去」、「行」或「移動」而不解作「走」) = house-SG.POSSESSED-his.ALIENABLE-OBL.DEM-DAT foot-DU.ERG/OBL-INSTRUMENTAL walk-INDIC-IMPERF-PRES-1.SG.A
  • ti qit-îna-n qâts-i-ntr-as, pina-m phâl-a-t-a-si! - Qitas之刀!正向你而來!(此為一片語,用於戰鬥時的吶喊)
  • râk-ima-t-a-paq! - 我要得到你(此為一片語,用於戰鬥時的吶喊)
  • tan-i krâh- - 踢牙齒(此為一片語,意即「粗製濫造」、「不知所云」等,據稱這源自形容黑心商人賣的米(Qitas族二角龍龍的主食為某種米)的詞,而其出處則已不可考,後來Qitas族二角龍龍有某任君王以此話形容某大臣的上書後,這話也開始有了「不知所云」的意思,使用時要注意受詞和動詞的詞形變化)
    • 用例:
      tya tân-i-q-as krâh-a-s-a-ya - 這踢了我的牙齒!(意即「這(真是)不知所云!」或「這爛透了!」等)

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